Frequently Asked Questions

In this section, we list often asked questions and make definitions on terms used within the ACCIRAD project. If you have any additional point to add please contact us!

What is the meaning and scope of the terms used within this project?

In ACCIRAD, we try to follow the terms as defined in a proposal for the EURATOM Basic Safety Standards (BSS) Directive from September 2011, but use as well definitions of other documents:

  • Inspection: Inspection means an investigation by any competent authority to verify compliance with national provisions; (EURATOM BSS sept 2011, definition 60).
  • Clinical audit: Clinical audit means a systematic examination or review of medical radiological procedures which seeks to improve the quality and outcome of patient care through structured review, whereby medical radiological practices, procedures and results are examined against agreed standards for good medical radiological procedures, with modification of practices where indicated and the application of new standards if necessary; (EURATOM BSS sept 2011, definition 79) Directive 97/43/EURATOM introduces (article 6) requirements for clinical audit of medical radiological procedures (diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy).

  • Quality assurance: Quality assurance means all those planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate assurance that a structure, system, component or procedure will perform satisfactorily in compliance with agreed standards. Quality control is a part of quality assurance (EURATOM BSS sept 2011, definition 63)

    WHO defines: Quality assurance (QA) in radiotherapy is all procedures that ensure consistency of the medical prescription, and safe fulfilment of that prescription, as regards to the dose to the target volume, together with minimal dose to normal tissue, minimal exposure of personnel and adequate patient monitoring aimed at determining the end result of the treatment
  • Quality control: Quality control means the set of operations (programming, coordinating, implementing) intended to maintain or to improve quality. It includes monitoring, evaluation and maintenance at required levels of all characteristics of performance of equipment that can be defined, measured, and controlled (EURATOM BSS Sept 2011, definition 99)

    ISO definition: The ISO definition states that quality control is the operational techniques and activities that are used to fulfil requirements for quality. This definition could imply that any activity whether serving the improvement, control, management or assurance of quality could be a quality control activity. Quality control is a process for maintaining standards and not for creating them. In simple terms quality control prevents undesirable changes being present in the quality of the product or service being supplied.
    The WHO World Alliance for Patient Safety general patient safety taxonomy contained within the International Classification for Patient Safety uses the following definitions:
  • An adverse event is an incident which results in harm to a patient.
  • A near miss is an incident that did not cause harm (also known as a close call). Recording near misses and using the information provided is good safety management practice as reviewing the report may help to prevent a re-occurrence.  Recording these near misses can also help identify any weaknesses in operational procedures as deviations from normal good practice may only happen infrequently but could have potentially high consequences.

Proposal for the EURATOM BSS Directive Sept 2011

  • (81) Unintended exposure means medical exposure that is significantly different from the medical exposure intended for a given purpose;
  • (68) Accidental exposure means an exposure of individuals, other than emergency workers, as a result of an accident;
faq.txt · Last modified: 2012/04/03 09:21 by Andreas Jahnen